The genocide suffocated in Darfour and in Chad
What does the massacre of a whole population look like? How to justify, in refugee camps of the Darfour, in front of traumatism of the Sudanese women with their badly fed children, the nuance enters " act of genocide " and a true genocide?
Since 2003, the conflict of Darfour and in the Chad made more than 200 000 deaths and provoked the departure of some 2,5 million persons avoiding the murderous raids of janjawid, Arabic militias of Sudan who act from part and the others of the border. Wangari Maathai, Kenyan ecologist and Nobelist of the peace explains: " It is, of the point of vue of an outside observer, a simple tribal war, but, actually, it is about a fight for the control of an environment which is not any more capable to give the needs of all those who live there. " The victims of this civil war, are children who die from the cholera, from the cold or still from the malnutrition; it is women who, taking out of refugee camps to fetch some water, are assailed by somber characters, then violated. (A man surprised outside camps never returns alive).
As in Rwanda in 1994, it is the ethnic cleavagesthat which have activated the violence. Sudan is astride on the ethnic border which separates the tribes of Arabic nomads of North Africa of sub-Saharan Afric, such as the people Four (Darfour means " Earth of the Four " ). In Sudan, the black population denounces a special treatment of the gourvernement to the Arabic population, which would have more easily access to the water and to the lands of pasture. The quasi-totality of the profits of the new oil exploitations is gathered in by Arabs of Khartum. In 2003, the rebels of the Darfour are mirrored to aim at the government, which quickly answered by sending helicopters to set on fire the black villages. After this devastation, janjawid, supported by the government, crossed the country on horseback or in camel, violent the women and burning villages. Those militias had order of to pursue the rebels in their villages and were free to massacre, to destroy and to burn everything on their road.
" They violated our women to make sure that we can never forget ", declared us an elder of a village of Darfour. " The villagers do not recognize the children and do not love them as such. In their only sight, they see an other time the horror of the rapist janjawid. " The balance sheet, four years later, is the one of a slow genocide of the black civil population, among which more than 200 000 individuals died. More than two millions of them are taken refuge in camps today, deprived and often separated from theirs. What was only an attempt to put down a rebellion metamorphosed into exercise of large-scale power for the Sudanese government of the president Bashir.
The current conflict germinated, while the North and the South of the country were still in confrontation in a civil war which was going to cost the life to 1,5 million persons. Since the end of this war in 2004, the Sudanese government showed no empresement to disarm janjawid and preferred to help them, to encourage them in their acts by supplying them an air support and with weapons to sow the destruction to with vulnerable black farmers. In August, 2007, after four years of debate, United Nations finally arrived at an agreement foreseeing the deployment of a contingent of preservation of the peace of 26 000 servicemen to put an end to the violence and strengthen the humanitarian efforts already in place. Regrettably, for hundreds of thousand victims, this help arrives too late.
Today the situation is appreciably more complex: the government distributes weapons in all the Arabic or African groups without distinsction, ready to declare itself against the rebels, sometimes and goes until supply weapons to both parties of the same local conflict. So, the war propagated in the Chad and in centraficaine Republic. Since November, 2006, oriental Chad welcomed more than 200 000 displaced persons enraison of the janjawids raids on the borders. In the heart of the waiting-game and of the distribution of the conflict find the will to maintain the population under the yoke of a constant crisis " to divide and destroy to reign better ", to keep, for the same minority, the profits of the oil. Result: a suffocated genocide.